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工程预算成本测算思路,造价人士建议收藏

来源:前沿网校 发布时间:2017-09-08 15:14:19 点击: 打印页面

工程预算成本测算思路

1、首先应该是熟悉招标文件和图纸,这个时候要注意的就是有没有比较少见的材料及工艺,如果有,应该尽快准备好其材料价格或分包价格。

2、接下来是搜集材料价格,主要是大宗材料。如商品砼及钢筋、水泥的价格(注意考虑税的因素),砖块的价格,这里要注意就是要看招标合同的要求,如果是总价合同,那么我们不仅仅是看到眼前的价格,还要关注材料的走势,这个时候要多问问长期合作的一些材料商,他们的材料价格信息比较灵通。多年的从商经验造就他们对材料市场的敏感。另外也要多关注国家相关政策,也就是大环境的走向。很多城市的工程材料商都是当地的黑道¢断的,这样价格要高出市场平均价格的。总之:这一关要多花点心思。要不然要出大错的啊,另外注意留点余量啊。

3、接下来就是确定那些人工价格,其实大家都知道,土建、安装定额里的人工费给那些清包工老板人家都不愿意做的,因为太低了,按照现在比较普通的都是由包工队清包劳务,按混凝土工,粉刷工,钢筋工,木工几大工种分包。如果有长期合作的队伍,可以让他们看了图纸后给一个报价,一般来说他们都是报得很准的,按照经验。混凝土工主体阶段普通的框架结构一般是35元/㎡左右,包括基础主体混凝土,填充墙(一般基础按一层建筑面积计算),钢筋工280一吨含扎丝,粉刷一般是30元/㎡左右,木工30元/平方

注意:各个工程的特点不同,质量要求,工期要求不一样,这个价格波动较大,如要创杯的工程,泥工木工价格较高,高层剪力墙结构木工价格和钢筋工价格要加高,隔墙较少的厂房,泥工价格可以减少。商品砼的工程泥工减少价格。工期加快的工程,木工的价格变动较大。现场经验较少或刚毕业的同行不要乱来,多问问现场一线的施工员(尤其是那种包清工出身的施工员)或者是施工项目经理,他们比较在行。

4接下来就是算工程量了,这个工作很简单没什么好说的,就是一点:统筹计算,事半功倍!

5、接下来是组综合单价了,这关也是影响中标与否的关键一步,特别是很多的工程已经开始清单报价了,价格的风险对施工单位来说更加重要。这个东西一定要根据材料价格信息和已调查到的人工价格(分摊到里面)。

6、测算综合单价。工程子项很多,但是占造价大部分的就那几个项目,一般对这几个项目进行测算:混凝土、钢筋、外架、模板(措施费)、地砖、外墙高级装修如干挂。


下面说说测算几个单项的过程:

1)混凝土: 单价不外乎人工材料机械三大块(管理费等等另外计算),人工不要照定额上的人工费,因为不准的,人工费按清工价格另行总计算。机械费按现场总配置的机械设备按总工期总费用(折旧或租费)统一计算,机械人工就不管了,因为一般都是由清工合同中包含的。仅仅算一个材料费就够了。以C25混凝土为例:通过当地的其他工程相同材料产地的同级配比看看水泥砂石水泥含量是多少,如果没有,可以到工程所在地的实验室找找,因为级配单的级别一般要高过实际设计等级的,还要看工程所在地附近的材料情况,这些要在投标的勘察摸清楚。如果是商品混凝土的话就更简单了。通过级配分析出整个工程的水泥砂石用量,注意:不要去分什么梁板柱什么的,只要是混凝土都放到这里分析!

分析好了之后就是对混凝土的损耗进行分析了:大家都知道混凝土的损耗量一般是3%,但是大家有没有注意到:混凝土的工程量计算是不扣除钢筋体积的,而钢筋的比重是7.85t/立方米,也就是说一个10000㎡的工程,按含钢量50kg/㎡的话,就有500吨的钢筋,也就是说钢筋占了64立方米的混凝土,这64立方米的混凝土可以用来完成一个普通的300㎡的框架结构的一个标准层啊!施工损耗和钢筋的体积相抵消了,但是还有损耗的:你以为送料的车能给足你量吗?不可能的!顶多给你97%。不过不要紧,施工单λ还有一招啊:¥板12cm,国家规范允许+-5mm,算算一个¥面下来你能按国家允许范Χ内省多少?绕来绕去,就是为了让大家更加了解工程上的实际情况。一般都是混凝土取1%的损耗就够了

2)钢筋:钢筋也是这样,如果不抽料的情况下,可以按定额含量暂估。竣工或进度款支付同期调整。同混凝土:人工费机械费暂时不管,只算材料费,关键是定损耗,实际中的损耗是1%而且建议在和钢筋班组定合同中就把这个1%损耗定。为实际中,科学合理的下料和进料,1%的损耗控制不在话下。工程量出来了,结合你所了解的材料单价及其走势(总价合同时用)相乘就是了。

 3)外架:外架的测算相对繁琐一点,因为这个涉及到施工组织设计和国家的搭设规范以及当地的安全监督站的要求。要知道,每一个地区的搭设要求不一样的,搭设规范也有不同之处,市区和郊区的搭设要求也不一样。不过大体上是一样的。对这个测算一般是按柱距1500mm,一道踢脚杆一道拦腰杆来算的。

根据建筑物外墙周长和工程总进度计划编制月需求钢管扣件量,这一步对熟悉施工的朋友来说不难的。钢管租金0.014元每米,扣件0.008元一个,每250米一吨48*3.5钢管,每吨钢管配180-200个扣件足够。有了这些数据,再加上一本《脚手架搭设规范》就足够了。

也许有朋友说这样测算一个外架有没有必要?告诉你:外架对于施工单位来说有很多的作用,作为定额上的按建筑面积上的计算方法不准的,而且这种东西其实是施工单λ的一件法宝:如果甲方拖欠工程款,谈判谈不下来,我就拆外架,这个对甲方来说具有重大的打击力度,因为这样无疑是告诉他我们要打持久战了,而拆与不拆,就要考虑外架的成本了。

4)地砖:这个其实比较简单一点,人工费机械费(其实也没什么机械)一般质量要求的13元/㎡,地砖价格相信你在成本测算之前已经了解到了。水泥砂的成本6-8元就足够足够了。

5)粉刷:这个也一样,人工费一般30元/建筑面积㎡。至于材料费4-5元做20-30mm的中级抹灰够了。人工费按粉刷面积4元一个平方了。

6)外墙干挂:这个和设计及甲方要求的材料有很大关系,这些明确的前提下找一个家专业做这个的施工队伍报个价就行了啊。

7)门窗工程:最好的办法是找门窗厂给你报价。

8)模板措施费:这项费用一般是按“包工包料”给施工班组价格减去“包工”的价格和钢管扣件支撑的租费得出来的。包工包料的框架结构一般是65元左右,反正基本上是清工价格*2。但是要考虑工期,如果工期紧或大跨度要多备一两层模板,价格相应提高。如果是剪力墙或者有结构转换层也要提高。另外的钢管扣件的租金结合常规支撑方案参照外架测算方法计算。

有了以上几个大项,总造价就偏不到哪里去了,其他的小项直接按定额并调查。

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